According to Economist Intelligence Unit’s Democracy Index 2018, there has been deterioration of trust in democracy in 42 countries including Turkey which has been experiencing decline consecutively for 6 years.
The report evaluates 167 countries’ democratic governance values according to 5 main categories and 60 signifiers. The main categories include electoral processes and pluralism, functioning of government, political participation, democratic -political culture- & civil liberties. Countries have been distributed into four types in terms of governance; authoritarian regimes, hybrid regimes, flawed democracies, fully democratic countries.
SCANDINAVIA TOPS THE DEMOCRACY INDEX
Norway, Iceland and Sweden have topped the list of Democracy Index while North Korea, Syria and Democratic Republic of Congo were the countries at the bottom. Two countries that have experienced the sharpest decline are both from Latin America, Nicaragua and Venezuela. Both countries have fallen 17 ranks compared to the year before and Nicaragua has been marked as Authoritarian Regime falling from Hybrid Regime, while Venezuela remained as Authoritarian Regime. Armenia, Macedonia, Ecuador, Haiti and Tunisia have marked progress in the index.
ITALY, TURKEY AND RUSSIA LOWER EUROPEAN AVERAGE
European average has been lowered mainly by three countries in global scale. Italy has fallen 12 ranks, Turkey has fallen 10 and Russia 9. Among the causes of decline in Italy, the anti-refugee MMS and Lega Coalition’s rise to government is shown following elections in March 2018.
Turkey has marked the lowest score among Western European countries with 4.37 followed by Greece with 7.29 and Cyprus with 7.51, Italy with 7.71. According to the index, if Turkey falls below 4.0 margin, it will also be categorized as Authoritarian Regime and no longer Hybrid Regime.
According to the index which rates democratic governance levels of countries harsher than other indexes, only 4.5% of the global population currently lives under fully democratic countries. Moreover, total global democracy points have remained stable for the first time in 3 years in the year 2018. A total of 42 countries have experienced decline compared to 2017 when 89 countries had experienced decline. In 2018, a total of 48 countries’ democracy index points have increased.
GLOBAL THREAT AGAINST DEMOCRACY
Threat against democracy has become more visible globally in 2018. Europe has partly been experiencing trouble in terms of approach to democracy. Due to limitations on Turkey’s President Erdoğan being put aside, Turkey has been experiencing a decline consecutively for 6 years.
TURKEY RANKS ON 110TH PLACE
According to the report Turkey has fallen 10 ranks this year and placed on 110. The report also reiterates that with Turkey’s Executive Presidential Regime, it is harder to check the powers of President Erdoğan. The report also states that latest parliamentary and presidential elections in Turkey have taken place under State of Emergency Rule, as well as Turkey’s continuous decline in democracy index.